Saturday, September 11, 2004


Also spelled �ulema�, Arabic �'ulama'� the learned of Islam, those who possess the quality of 'ilm, �learning,� in its widest sense. From the 'ulama', who are versed theoretically and practically in the Muslim sciences, come the religious teachers of the Islamic community - theologians (mutakallimun), canon lawyers (muftis), judges (qadis), professors - and high state religious officials like the shaikh al-Islam. In a narrower